Angus HER - NO45SW0004 - ST ORLAND'S STONE, COSSANS

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Main Details

Primary ReferenceNO45SW0004
NameST ORLAND'S STONE, COSSANS
NRHE Card No.NO45SW4
NRHE Numlink 33868
HES SM No. 90270
HES LB No.
Site Form Standing Structure
Site Condition Complete 2
Details St Orland's Stone is a Class II upright cross-slab of Old Red Sandstone, nearly rectangular, 2.3 m high, 71 cm wide at base, tapering slightly towards the top, and 25.4 cm thick, standing within a small fenced enclosure. It bears on one face a full length cross in relief and a variety of interlaced patterns in low relief. On the other side are carvings which include a crescent with a V-rod, a double-disc with Z-rod, horsemen and a boat containing six figures. A series of small-scale excavations was carried out by Kirkdale Archaeology in August 2008 around the stone to determine if the stone is in its original location and find the extent of previous investigations at the site. The slab remained in situ during the excavation and was braced by scaffolding. Two trenches were excavated within the fenced enclosure, in which the stone sits, while a series of test pits were excavated outside of the fence to provide context. The cross slab has been reset with concrete running under the base of the stone, and the stone and ground level within the fence raised 0.3-0.4 m. The stone was tapered at its base, coming to a point at its south end 0.6 m below the current ground surface and rising to the north. In the southeast trench a partly exposed cut feature below the stone may have been an earlier socket, but further excavation would be required to confirm this. Disturbed soils to the east of the slab were interpreted as part of Jervise's 1859 excavation, although three 17th century coins recovered from a layer above may indicate that this reflects even earlier work. Archaeological deposits below this, including a cut feature at the east end of the trench, indicate that significant deposits survive in this area. In the northwest trench a pair of human tibia (not lifted) oriented east-west below a sandstone slab indicate the presence of surviving, albeit damaged, burials. A possible further cist cover (not raised) and two possible unlined graves in the west section were also recorded in this trench. Both trenches produced evidence of an earlier circular fence around the stone, comprising massive slabs in fence posts were set, truncating the west end of the human tibia. Test pits were dug to the north, east, south and west, with those to the north and west revealing probable ploughsoil over a sandy subsoil. To the east, darker hillwash and gleyed soils were encountered, while to the south a more complex sequence of ploughed or windblown deposits was recorded. In 2010 Kirkdale Archaeology dug a socket through the backfill of the 2008 excavation, against the east face of the stone, to allow the stone to be reset in concrete. No new archaeological observations were made.
Last Update04/03/2020
Updated Bycherbert
Compiler 
Date of Compilation 

Easting: 340083.511, Northing: 750018.148

Google Map for NO45SW0004

National Grid Reference: NO 4008 5001



Event Details

Event DateEvent TypeOASIS ID
2008 Excavation kirkdale1-59126
2011 Excavation kirkdale1-171096

Excavations and Surveys

Date MDate YTypeDurationDirector / OrganisationAuspicesFundExtent
91958  JLDOS  
 1855  unknown   
82008 Excavation  Kirkdale HS 
112010 Excavation  KirkdaleHS  

Artefact and Ecofact

Ecofact

Samples
Palynology
Ecofact Notes

Monument Types

Monument Type 1Monument Type 2Monument Type 3OrderProbability
STONES PICTISH IIA100
CISTS  B100
SYMBOLS HORSEMANC100
SYMBOLSBOAT D100
SYMBOLS ANIMALE100
SYMBOLSCRESCENT F100
SYMBOLS V-RODG100
SYMBOLSDOUBLE-DISC H100
SYMBOLS Z-RODI100
SYMBOLSHUMAN J100
BONESHUMAN K100
CROSSES  M100
PATTERNS INTERLACEDL100
CROSS-SLABS  N100